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Theological Papers

  • The Seventy "Weeks" Prophecy of Daniel 9

    By Gordon Hugenberger December 10, 2004

    Daniel 9:20-27 is widely regarded as one of the most difficult passages in the Bible. Over the centuries scholars have proposed dozens of competing interpretations of these challenging verses, especially Daniel’s prophecy of the 70 “weeks.” Although there are many differences in detail among these interpretations, virtually all of them can be grouped under three main approaches, each of which is defined by its understanding of when the last “week” takes place. What we may call the “critical view” holds that Daniel’s 70th “week” refers to a 7-year span (a “week” of years) which took place 171-164 BC. Those who favor the “Dispensational view” hold that the 70th “week” has not yet taken place since it refers to a 7-year period, called the “Great Tribulation, which will happen at the end of the Church Age. Those who favor the “traditional view” hold that the 70th “week” includes the cross of Christ. Although these notes favor the “Traditional” interpretation of Daniel 9 as most faithful to the biblical text, as well as to the facts of history, it is recognized that there are sincere well informed Christians who hold each of the other views. Given the challenges of these difficult verses in Daniel 9, honest disagreement over their interpretation should never be a cause for division in the Church of Jesus Christ.

  • Evidences for the Historicity of the Bible

    By Gordon Hugenberger December 1, 2001

    Faith does not mean believing what you know is not true!

  • Introductory Notes on the Biblical Ethics of War

    By Gordon Hugenberger September 23, 2001

    I. The Holy Wars of Israel in the Old Testament

    II. The Old Testament and the New Testament are not at odds

    III. Further guidelines for a Christian’s possible participation in war

  • The Servant of the Lord in the 'Servant Songs' of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure

    By Gordon Hugenberger July 5, 1994

    No explanation for the identity of the servant of the Lord in the ‘servant songs’ of Isaiah commands a scholarly consensus. This study attempts to overcome the present impasse by rejecting the dismemberment of Isaiah 40-66 advanced by Duhm and others, who isolate the ‘servant songs’ from their immediate literary context. Taking account of that context, which is dominated by a pervasive second exodus theme, this essay argues that Isaiah’s servant figure is to be identified with the expected ‘prophet like Moses’ (Dt. 18:14ff.; 34:10ff.). Such an approach enriches the interpretation of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 in particular and offers substantial support for the NT’s messianic interpretation without presupposing that interpretation, as is often done.